Apollo the sun god

apollo the sun god

Dec 6, Apollo facts, information and stories from ancient Greek mythology. Learn about the Greek god of the sun, the light, the music and the prophecy. Apollo: God of the Sun, Healing, Music, and Poetry (Greek Mythology) | Teri Temple, Robert Squier | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle. Maggie hat gerade € in Fairytale Legends: Hansel and Gretel gewonnen, wunderbar! Auf dem Handy. Nunavummiut hat gerade € in Gemix. Background A divine slot befitting a god! Martin NilssonVol I, p. Mit der Verwendung unserer Seite stimmst du deren Verwendung zu. A young man with curly golden hair or game of gin rays of the sun emanating from his head. Apollo had many encounters but no formal marriages. Hier werden einzelne Wild-Symbole auf dem Hauptwalzenset zuerst in gestapelte Wild-Symbole verwandelt jede Position auf der Walze zeigt Winter Berries Yggdrasil - Mobil6000 ein Wild-Symbol und dann auf apollo the sun god Nebenwalzenset übertragen! Hyacinth veranstaltungen in baden baden Apollo for his lover and Zephyr was lcs promotion He has been the subject of many great. Bonus symbols The Wild symbol, the sun, matches all symbols except for the Bonus symbol: The connection with the Dorians and their initiation festival apellai fußball em modus reinforced by the month Apellaios in northwest Greek calendars. By CyreneApollo had a Beste Spielothek in Schulberg finden named Aristaeuswho became the patron god of cattle, fruit treeshunting, husbandry and bee-keeping.

This is an important factor that brought Apollo even closer to the ancient Greeks, much like many other Olympian deities.

Murder of Cyclops and Niobids. The killings of Cyclops and Niobids are the two very peculiar instances in the life of Apollo.

There are moments in these two episodes, in which the god seems very unfriendly and unkind. Human emotions of vengeance, hatred, and jealousy seem to take a toll of his mind.

But, on the other hand, these are also the very factors that make him seem more human-like. Zeus killed Apollo's son Asclepius with his thunderbolt, in order to resurrect Hippolytus, the Prince of Athens, from the dead.

Apollo was enraged by this, and sought revenge for his son's death. But he could not harm Zeus, and so in his anger, killed Cyclops, the maker of Zeus' thunderbolt.

For this grievous crime, Zeus sentenced him to one whole year of rigorous labor and a life of anonymity.

During this period, he served as a shepherd for the Thessalian king, Admetus. In return of the good treatment given to him by Admetus, Apollo blessed him with riches and great victories.

Another episode relates to Niobe, the Theban Queen, who was overcome with pride because she had more children than Leto.

Niobe had fourteen children called 'Niobids' , seven sons and seven daughters, whereas Leto had only two. In her false pride Niobe began considering herself superior to Leto, and kept on demeaning her every now and then.

Annoyed by these repetitive acts of Niobe, Apollo and Artemis decided to teach her a lesson. Apollo killed all her sons, and Artemis, all her daughters.

Apollo is almost always depicted with a cithara a kind of lyre in his hand. However, it was neither Apollo's invention, nor was it originally his.

Mercury , who had also invented it. Nevertheless, Apollo, after having acquired the musical instrument, solely became its master.

We have certain instances in Greek mythology, wherein Apollo was challenged, specially by satyrs for musical contests. One such instance narrates the tale of Apollo's contest with Pan the spirit of wilderness.

Pan, himself was a good musician who played pipes. Out of impudence, Pan challenged Apollo for a musical contest that was judged by Tmolus, the King of Lydia.

Though Apollo was declared a winner, King Midas of Phrygia, who was the follower of Pan, praised Pan's music more than that of Apollo's, and challenged the judgment of the contest.

This enraged Apollo, who cut off Midas' ears and replaced them with those of a donkey's. Another more popular myth is regarding the musical contest between Apollo and the satyr Marsyas.

When Athena abandoned the aulos the double flute invented by her, she threw it in the mountains, where Marsyas happened to discover it.

When he realized that he could make melodious music with it, he foolishly challenged Apollo for a contest. Apollo agreed on a condition that both of them sing and play the instrument together.

This was an easy task for Apollo as his instrument was a lyre. However, Marsyas could not play the flute and sing at the same time.

Resultantly, Apollo was declared the winner by the Muses, who were judging the competition. Subsequently, Apollo flayed Marsyas, and nailed his skin to a pine tree.

Some sources tell us that Apollo also once had a musical contest with Cinyras, the King of Cyprus. Cinyras was also an excellent player of lyre, and this time, Apollo had challenged him to see who was better.

Cinyras lost, and Apollo killed him, upon which, his daughters attempted to commit suicide by throwing themselves into the sea, but were transformed into beautiful sea birds.

According to another version of the myth, Cinyras killed himself after losing the contest. It is indeed interesting how Apollo, being the god of music and arts, came to be associated with the nine Muses, supposedly the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, the titaness of remembrance.

While some sources refer to him as their leader and master, some others consider them as his daughters. Nonetheless, this association seems quite apt.

Apollo with Marsyas in the musical contest. Apollo with the Muses. Apollo with his lyre. Apollo, the god of beauty, had numerous love affairs in his life.

Notably enough, his lovers were both, male and female. But unfortunately, not all his love stories reached the desired end. One of the most famous accounts of Apollo's many loves, is the tale of his infatuation for Daphne, a water nymph and the daughter of Peneus, the river god.

The infatuation was the result of a vengeance that Eros, the God of love, sought from Apollo, after the latter made fun of the former's archery skills.

Eros shot his gold-tipped arrow at Apollo, so that he instantly fell in love with Daphne, who was the first to come before him. Daphne, on the other hand, was shot by Eros with his lead-tipped arrow, so that her heart was filled with a strong feeling of hatred for Apollo.

So, maddened by her love, while Apollo chased Daphne everywhere she went, Daphne attempted to run farther and farther from him. At a point when Daphne was too tired and irritated with Apollo's continuous chasing, she prayed to her father to help her get rid of Apollo.

Owing to this, Peneus, her father, transformed her into a laurel tree. Her skin became the bark; hair, the leaves; and arms, the branches.

Apollo then, realized that he could no longer marry Daphne, and hence he adopted her as his sacred tree. He also blessed the tree with eternal youth and immortality.

Leucothea was another love of Apollo, who was betrayed by her own sister, Clytia, and was buried alive by her father. Clytia was also in love with Apollo.

Owing to the betrayal, Apollo rejected Clytia, who was struck with grief and eventually died. He then, turned her into a sunflower plant that follows the path of the Sun daily.

Apollo was also in love with Marpessa, the granddaughter of Ares, the God of warfare and bloodshed. She was kidnapped by Idas, Posiedon's God of the ocean son who also loved her, according to some sources.

Zeus intervened between Apollo and Idas and asked Marpessa to choose between the two. She rejected Apollo on the ground that, owing to his immortality, he would come to dislike her as she grew old.

Castalia was yet another nymph, who was loved by Apollo. She attempted to flee away from Apollo and reached Delphi, where he transformed her into a spring.

This became the famous Castalian Spring, the water of which was considered to be holy. Cassandra was the daughter of the Trojan king, Priam.

Apollo fell in love with her, and in order to seduce her, granted her a gift of prophecy. However, Cassandra was in love with the Greek hero Agamemnon, and later on, rejected Apollo for him.

Enraged by this, Apollo cursed her that she would only be able to foresee the tragic events, and that nobody would ever believe her prophecy.

Some sources also tell us about Acantha, a nymph, with whom Apollo was also in love. She completely rejected Apollo, and scratched his face badly, when he tried to rape her.

When she died, he turned her into the acanthus tree. Apollo, as mentioned above, also had several male lovers. Some of them were as under: One of the most famed love affair of Apollo was with the Spartan Prince named, Hyacinthus.

Sources tell us that he was beautiful and athletic, and had an attractive personality. Zephyrus, the west wind, also desired Hyacinthus, who did not pay any heed to him.

One day, when Apollo and Hyacinthus were playing with the discus, the one thrown by Apollo was forcefully blown by Zephyrus, who was immensely jealous.

The discus struck the forehead of Hyacinthus, and he died on the spot. The grief-stricken Apollo, created a flower out of his lover's blood, and named it after the Prince.

In the later periods, the Spartans were said to have celebrated the 'Festival of Hyacinthus' with great pomp and show.

Cyparissus was another male lover of Apollo. He was a descendant of Heracles Roman: According to a myth, Apollo had gifted him a deer, which he loved immensely.

However, one day, he accidentally killed it, while it was fast asleep in the undergrowth. Cyparissus became very sad on the deer's death, and asked Apollo to grant him a wish for letting his tears fall eternally.

He was then, transformed into a Cypress by Apollo, a tree, the sap of which forms tear-like droplets on its trunk. The love life of Apollo has been so vividly described in the ancient Greek and Roman sources, that it became one of the popular subjects of artistic expression, especially during the Renaissance period.

For instance, Apollo and Daphne is a famous marble sculpture by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini,, made between and It was based on Ovid's narrative, and is today, located in the Galleria Borghese, a famous art gallery in Rome.

Apollo, as the God of healing, plays a vital role in the ancient Greek and Roman mythologies. Apollo's son Asclepius is also the God of healing and medicine.

However, the concept of healing, with respect to both the gods, is quite different from each other. In the case of Asclepius, diseases are problems related to the body, which can be cured through proper knowledge and medications.

But for Apollo, disease pertains, not to an individual body, but to the world as a whole. The term disease, here, refers to the evil that is prevalent in the universe, which causes troubles and hardships and brings death.

Apollo, as the healer, aims to purify the world of all the pollutants that tend to disrupt the cosmic order.

So healing, in Apollo's case, pertains more to cleansing the spirit or the soul, rather than the physical body.

In Archaic Greece B. An Archaic Greek myth tells us how Hera drove all the women of Argos mad, and how Iatromantis physician-seer Melampus cured them using some purifying drug.

It further states that Melampus had learned about this process of purification from Apollo himself. During the Trojan war, Apollo's arrows spread the epidemic of plague in the Greek camp.

According to some later sources, the Greeks made sacrifices to please the enraged god and prayed to him in order to drive the disease away and restore health, which seems to have happened.

In this context, health seems to be nothing but the absence of disease, which philosophically means driving out evil and purifying the world, so that the cosmic order can be restored and maintained.

Apollo, the healer, seems to carry forward the tradition of a Bronze Age Mycenean deity Paiawon. As a healer, the cult of Apollo spread from the colonies in the Black Sea to Rome, where he was venerated as Apollo Medicus , the god of medicine.

His association with spiritual purification was the reason why, the practice of worshiping him as a healer continued, even after his son Asclepius took over the domain of medicine and healing.

Apollo Belvedere who was worshiped as a healer. Oracular Cult of Apollo. From the Archaic period onwards, Apollo became synonymous to divination.

Not that he was the only god of the Greek pantheon, who was capable of making divine prophecies. There were others too; but Apollo had a far larger fan following than the rest.

Homer narrates a very interesting incident in Iliad, where Hermes, as a child, asks Apollo to grant him a gift of divination. To this, Apollo flatly refuses and tells Hermes that it has been divinely decreed that nobody in the universe, except him may learn the art of divination.

Thus, in Greek mythology, divination is the domain of Apollo and Apollo alone, and this is seen in the later periods when Apollo takes over the prophetic cults of all the other deities, and attempts to become a sole oracular divinity.

Of the large number of oracular shrines dedicated to Apollo, those at Delos and Delphi became the largest cult centers, with widespread influence.

Added to this, there were two more, important Apolline oracular shrines viz. While most oracles of Apollo predicted the present and future events, the shrines of Didyma and Clarus were particularly significant for the 'theological oracles' that gave lessons in the religious ideology of monism.

The oracles in these two cult centers were based on the belief that all the deities and men are varied aspects of a single, ultimate reality. There were many more oracular shrines of Apollo in ancient Greece and Rome, some of which include the following: The ancient town of Bassae in Peloponnese in southern Greece.

In this oracular shrine, Apollo was worshiped as Apollo Epicurius , the healer. The first inhabitants of Tenea were the Trojan prisoners of war, and they were also supposedly the first worshipers of Apollon Teneatos.

In the town of Khyrse in the Troad peninsula of Asia Minor, Apollo was revered as an oracular divinity under the epithet, Apollon Smintheus.

In the city of Patara on the southwest coast of Lycia, a winter oracle of Apollo used to be held. In Syria, in the ancient Greek town of Hierapolis Bambyce, there was a sanctuary of the Syrian Goddess Atargatis , in which there was a stolen, bearded statue of Apollo.

Here, based on the random movements of the statue, divinations were made. The locations of Oracles of Apollo reveal a rather impressive, tribal past of the god's oracular nature.

Most of his oracular shrines were situated outside the city limits, most often in the wilderness, where appropriate calm and serene atmosphere was available, in which man could meet God.

Here, in the calmness of nature, God possessed his Oracles, and made prophecies. The oracular cult of Apollo was at its peak until about the 3rd century A.

In about the second half of the 4th century A. Ruins of Apollo's oracular sanctuary at Delos. Ruins of Apollo's oracular sanctuary at Delphi.

As mentioned above, Apollo was a very popular cult deity right from the Archaic period. People worshiped him in large numbers all over ancient Greece and also in ancient Rome.

Numerous festivals were celebrated in his honor, and most of them marked his great deeds and accomplishments. These celebrations were held in the honor of , the martial hero, who either directly or by means of his divinations, aided the mortals during wars.

The ancient Greek writers have given two possible origins of the festival. Plutarch, a 1st century A.

With the help of Apollo, Theseus emerged victorious and commenced the festival. On the other hand, Suidas a compiler of an ancient Greek lexicon states that the festival commemorated the triumph of King Erechtheus of Athens with Apollo's assistance over Eumolpus, Poseidon's Roman: Nothing much is known regarding how the festival was celebrated except the sacrifices, which were made to Artemis Agrotera the goddess of the Attic hunters.

Here, Apollo was revered as Apollo Carneus , the lord of flocks and herds. The festival called for a week-long celebration, during which all the military operations were halted in Sparta.

An important part of the celebrations included the dedication of the bronze sacrificial tripod in Apollo's temple. This festival called for a national holiday in Sparta, and sources tell us that the Spartans stopped all their activities, in order to be able to participate in the festivities.

The festival commemorated the death of the Spartan prince Hyacinthus. The Spartans mourned the death of their hero on the first day, celebrated his rebirth on the second, and on the third day, a special tunic woven by the Spartan ladies was offered to Apollo.

This was primarily an agrarian festival, where farmers offered their first harvests to the divine siblings.

Zeus ordered Apollo to cleanse himself, after which he returned to Delphi and claimed the shrine to his name. After these events, Delos and Delphi became sacred sites for the worship of Zeus , Leto , Artemis , and, especially, Apollo.

The high priestess Pythia presided over the Temple of Apollo at Delphi , serving as its enigmatic oracle. So as to appease his older brother after he found out what happened, Hermes offered Apollo his new invention.

The first one to dare do such a thing was the least fortunate one, the satyr Marsyas. Fortunately for him, Pan survived unscathed after challenging Apollo and almost unanimously losing the contest.

Midas , however — the only judge who deemed that Pan was the better player — got what he deserved: After losing his contest against Apollo , he was either killed by the god or committed suicide.

Apollo was loved by both gods and humans, women and men; and, more often than not, he loved them back as well. On two occasions, a mortal got the better of the god.

A white crow informed Apollo of this affair which enraged Apollo so much that he ordered Artemis to kill Coronis and burned the feathers of the crow.

Crows are black ever since. After a while, Apollo fell in love with Marpessa. Her lover Idas had already went through hell to get her, even risking his own life while abducting her.

Zeus stopped this fight and gave Marpessa the chance to choose. She chose Idas — since she feared that Apollo would stop loving her after she grows old.

In an attempt to seduce her, Apollo gifted Cassandra , the Trojan princess, the gift of prophecy. However, afterward she backed out of the deal.

But, he thought of a cunning idea to spoil it: Ever since, nobody believes her — even though her prophecies are always right.

She asked from her father, the river god Peneus , to be transformed into something else.

It is so, because he achieved this victory only apollo the sun god days after he was born. The ritualism belonged to Apollo from the beginning. Apollo defeated and killed Phorbasa wild rescue, who had seized the roads to Delphi and was harassing the pilgrims. Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo About the 4th century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore casino abend deko against disease and misfortune, or to book of ra kostenlos downloaden thanks after such protection online casino ohne einzahlung dezember 2019 been rendered. The sculptures of the god also occur, carved in relief, casino rottweil the pediments and friezes of temples. The island of Delos, then nba live ticker a major pilgrimage Zombie Escape Slots - Play Join Games Slot Machines for Free in Greece, and people flocked there to worship Leto and her twins book of dead how to win the hope of getting beautiful and brave children. In Rhodes Lindos they belong to Apollo and Dionysos who have destroyed the rats that were swallowing the grapes". Psychopomps Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos. For other uses, see Helios disambiguation. At the request of Apollo, however, Zeus metamorphosed him into an eagle. His original name is unknown, but it seems that he was absorbed by the more popular Apollo, who stood by the virgin "Mistress of the Animals", becoming her brother. At Delphi, alongside being an oracular deity, Apollo was also revered as Apollo Delphinus. The Etruscan god of the Sun, equivalent to Helios, was Usil. And because he is of a generous disposition, the sun god lets stacked Wild symbols appear on both reels — divine winnings are only a spin away! Und es wird ihm auch reichlich Platz dafür geboten, denn der Slot hat ganze 2 Walzensets, auf denen es zu göttlichen Gewinnkombinationen kommen kann. However, watch wild wild west free hot sizzling story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Apollo was an oracular god, as he was the prophetic deity in the Oracle in Delphi. One of Apollo 's most important daily tasks was to harness his test panda chariot, in over under strategie to move the Sun across the sky. Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's spielbank dresden. However in Greek religious belief as opposed to mythological tradition Apollo was increasingly connected oder identified with the sun. In a Hittite text is mentioned that the king invited a Babylonian priestess casino book pileggi a certain "purification". They keep on switching the sun god with Apollo and Helios. Among them sport Ares and the keen-eyed Argeiphontes [Hermes], while Apollon plays his lure stepping high and featly and radiance shines around him, the gleaming of his feet and close-woven vest. He has been the subject of many great.

Apollo the sun god -

But i could be wrong,i mean i only studied it for about 7 years. And this stays almost entirely true in mythological texts until they end. Griechische Mythologie Related Links. Sun symbols often casino club poker chips the wheel, disk, or circle, sometimes with radiating rays. Also anybody who reads any Percy Jackson book knows this. Cookies help us bring you Fanpop. The forms on earth are imperfect duplicates of the intellectual celestial ideas.

Apollo The Sun God Video

Apollo god - A Bright - Greek Mythology

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Sorry, but downloading is forbidden on this website. Zeus ordered Apollo to cleanse himself, after which he returned to Delphi and claimed the shrine to his name.

After these events, Delos and Delphi became sacred sites for the worship of Zeus , Leto , Artemis , and, especially, Apollo.

The high priestess Pythia presided over the Temple of Apollo at Delphi , serving as its enigmatic oracle. So as to appease his older brother after he found out what happened, Hermes offered Apollo his new invention.

The first one to dare do such a thing was the least fortunate one, the satyr Marsyas. Fortunately for him, Pan survived unscathed after challenging Apollo and almost unanimously losing the contest.

Midas , however — the only judge who deemed that Pan was the better player — got what he deserved: After losing his contest against Apollo , he was either killed by the god or committed suicide.

Apollo was loved by both gods and humans, women and men; and, more often than not, he loved them back as well. On two occasions, a mortal got the better of the god.

A white crow informed Apollo of this affair which enraged Apollo so much that he ordered Artemis to kill Coronis and burned the feathers of the crow.

Crows are black ever since. After a while, Apollo fell in love with Marpessa. Her lover Idas had already went through hell to get her, even risking his own life while abducting her.

Cyparissus asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo granted the request by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk.

Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old.

Sinope , a nymph, was approached by the amorous Apollo. She made him promise that he would grant to her whatever she would ask for, and then cleverly asked him to let her stay a virgin.

Apollo kept his promise and went back. Bolina was admired by Apollo but she refused him and jumped into the sea. To avoid her death, Apollo turned her into a nymph and let her go.

Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos , which was then named after her.

Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses.

Cassandra , was daughter of Hecuba and Priam. Apollo fell in love with Cassandra and she promised to return his love on the condition that Apollo gift to her the prophetic powers.

Apollo granted her the wish but she rejected him afterwards. Enraged, Apollo cursed her that she could see the future but that no one would ever believe her.

Hestia , the goddess of hearth, rejected Apollo and Poseidon's marriage proposal and swore that she would always stay unmarried.

In Aeschylus ' Oresteia trilogy, Clytemnestra kills her husband, King Agamemnon because he had sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia to proceed forward with the Trojan war, and Cassandra , a prophetess of Apollo.

Apollo gives an order through the Oracle at Delphi that Agamemnon's son, Orestes , is to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus , her lover.

Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes is pursued by the Erinyes or Furies female personifications of vengeance.

Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage.

They invade his temple, and he drives them away. He says that the matter should be brought before Athena.

Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes has become Apollo's supplicant. Apollo advocates Orestes at the trial, and ultimately Athena rules in favor of Apollo.

The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks. On the occasion of a pestilence in the s BCE, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".

After the battle of Actium , which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.

The chief Apollonian festival was the Pythian Games held every four years at Delphi and was one of the four great Panhellenic Games. Also of major importance was the Delia held every four years on Delos.

Athenian annual festivals included the Boedromia , Metageitnia , [] Pyanepsia , and Thargelia. Spartan annual festivals were the Carneia and the Hyacinthia.

Thebes every nine years held the Daphnephoria. Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara an advanced version of the common lyre , the plectrum and the sword.

Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod , representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi.

The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games. The palm tree was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in Delos.

Animals sacred to Apollo included wolves , dolphins, roe deer , swans , cicadas symbolizing music and song , hawks , ravens , crows , snakes referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy , mice and griffins , mythical eagle—lion hybrids of Eastern origin.

As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, — BCE. According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy.

However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention a Minor Asian god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most scholars.

In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves possibly a folk etymology.

In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus , god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder.

The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase.

Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean. This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony.

Apollo is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of the Renaissance. Greek art puts into Apollo the highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined.

The sculptors derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought.

The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the body that was essentially a religious activity. The muscular frames and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard Greek environment.

The statues of Apollo embody beauty, balance and inspire awe before the beauty of the world. The evolution of the Greek sculpture can be observed in his depictions from the almost static formal Kouros type in early archaic period , to the representation of motion in a relative harmonious whole in late archaic period.

In classical Greece the emphasis is not given to the illusive imaginative reality represented by the ideal forms, but to the analogies and the interaction of the members in the whole, a method created by Polykleitos.

Finally Praxiteles seems to be released from any art and religious conformities, and his masterpieces are a mixture of naturalism with stylization.

The evolution of the Greek art seems to go parallel with the Greek philosophical conceptions, which changed from the natural-philosophy of Thales to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras.

Thales searched for a simple material-form directly perceptible by the senses, behind the appearances of things, and his theory is also related to the older animism.

This was paralleled in sculpture by the absolute representation of vigorous life, through unnaturally simplified forms. Pythagoras believed that behind the appearance of things, there was the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based on a transcendental mathematical relation.

His ideas had a great influence on post-Archaic art. The Greek architects and sculptors were always trying to find the mathematical relation, that would lead to the esthetic perfection.

In classical Greece, Anaxagoras asserted that a divine reason mind gave order to the seeds of the universe, and Plato extended the Greek belief of ideal forms to his metaphysical theory of forms ideai , "ideas".

The forms on earth are imperfect duplicates of the intellectual celestial ideas. The artists in Plato's time moved away from his theories and art tends to be a mixture of naturalism with stylization.

The Greek sculptors considered the senses more important, and the proportions were used to unite the sensible with the intellectual. Kouros male youth is the modern term given to those representations of standing male youths which first appear in the archaic period in Greece.

This type served certain religious needs and was first proposed for what was previously thought to be depictions of Apollo.

The formality of their stance seems to be related with the Egyptian precedent, but it was accepted for a good reason. The sculptors had a clear idea of what a young man is, and embodied the archaic smile of good manners, the firm and springy step, the balance of the body, dignity, and youthful happiness.

When they tried to depict the most abiding qualities of men, it was because men had common roots with the unchanging gods. Apollo was the immortal god of ideal balance and order.

His shrine in Delphi , that he shared in winter with Dionysius had the inscriptions: In the first large-scale depictions during the early archaic period — BC , the artists tried to draw one's attention to look into the interior of the face and the body which were not represented as lifeless masses, but as being full of life.

The Greeks maintained, until late in their civilization, an almost animistic idea that the statues are in some sense alive.

This embodies the belief that the image was somehow the god or man himself. The statue is the "thing in itself", and his slender face with the deep eyes express an intellectual eternity.

According to the Greek tradition the Dipylon master was named Daedalus , and in his statues the limbs were freed from the body, giving the impression that the statues could move.

It is considered that he created also the New York kouros , which is the oldest fully preserved statue of Kouros type, and seems to be the incarnation of the god himself.

The animistic idea as the representation of the imaginative reality, is sanctified in the Homeric poems and in Greek myths, in stories of the god Hephaestus Phaistos and the mythic Daedalus the builder of the labyrinth that made images which moved of their own accord.

This kind of art goes back to the Minoan period, when its main theme was the representation of motion in a specific moment. The earliest examples of life-sized statues of Apollo, may be two figures from the Ionic sanctuary on the island of Delos.

Such statues were found across the Greek speaking world, the preponderance of these were found at the sanctuaries of Apollo with more than one hundred from the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoios , Boeotia alone.

Ranking from the very few bronzes survived to us is the masterpiece bronze Piraeus Apollo. It was found in Piraeus , the harbour of Athens.

The statue originally held the bow in its left hand, and a cup of pouring libation in its right hand. It probably comes from north-eastern Peloponnesus.

The emphasis is given in anatomy, and it is one of the first attempts to represent a kind of motion, and beauty relative to proportions, which appear mostly in post-Archaic art.

The statue throws some light on an artistic centre which, with an independently developed harder, simpler and heavier style, restricts Ionian influence in Athens.

Finally, this is the germ from which the art of Polykleitos was to grow two or three generations later. At the beginning of the Classical period , it was considered that beauty in visible things as in everything else, consisted of symmetry and proportions.

The artists tried also to represent motion in a specific moment Myron , which may be considered as the reappearance of the dormant Minoan element.

The Greek sculptors tried to clarify it by looking for mathematical proportions, just as they sought some reality behind appearances.

Polykleitos in his Canon wrote that beauty consists in the proportion not of the elements materials , but of the parts, that is the interrelation of parts with one another and with the whole.

It seems that he was influenced by the theories of Pythagoras. The type is represented by neo-Attic Imperial Roman copies of the late 1st or early 2nd century, modelled upon a supposed Greek bronze original made in the second quarter of the 5th century BCE, in a style similar to works of Polykleitos but more archaic.

The Apollo held the cythara against his extended left arm, of which in the Louvre example, a fragment of one twisting scrolling horn upright remains against his biceps.

Though the proportions were always important in Greek art, the appeal of the Greek sculptures eludes any explanation by proportion alone.

The statues of Apollo were thought to incarnate his living presence, and these representations of illusive imaginative reality had deep roots in the Minoan period, and in the beliefs of the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the bronze-age.

Just as the Greeks saw the mountains, forests, sea and rivers as inhabited by concrete beings, so nature in all of its manifestations possesses clear form, and the form of a work of art.

Spiritual life is incorporated in matter, when it is given artistic form. Just as in the arts the Greeks sought some reality behind appearances, so in mathematics they sought permanent principles which could be applied wherever the conditions were the same.

Artists and sculptors tried to find this ideal order in relation with mathematics, but they believed that this ideal order revealed itself not so much to the dispassionate intellect, as to the whole sentient self.

In the archaic pediments and friezes of the temples, the artists had a problem to fit a group of figures into an isosceles triangle with acute angles at the base.

The Siphnian Treasury in Delphi was one of the first Greek buildings utilizing the solution to put the dominating form in the middle, and to complete the descending scale of height with other figures sitting or kneeling.

The pediment shows the story of Heracles stealing Apollo's tripod that was strongly associated with his oracular inspiration. Their two figures hold the centre.

In the pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia , the single figure of Apollo is dominating the scene. These representations rely on presenting scenes directly to the eye for their own visible sake.

They care for the schematic arrangements of bodies in space, but only as parts in a larger whole. While each scene has its own character and completeness it must fit into the general sequence to which it belongs.

In these archaic pediments the sculptors use empty intervals, to suggest a passage to and from a busy battlefield. The artists seem to have been dominated by geometrical pattern and order, and this was improved when classical art brought a greater freedom and economy.

Apollo as a handsome beardless young man, is often depicted with a kithara as Apollo Citharoedus or bow in his hand, or reclining on a tree the Apollo Lykeios and Apollo Sauroctonos types.

The Apollo Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity for Europeans, from the Renaissance through the 19th century.

The life-size so-called " Adonis " found in on the site of a villa suburbana near the Via Labicana in the Roman suburb of Centocelle is identified as an Apollo by modern scholars.

In the late 2nd century CE floor mosaic from El Djem , Roman Thysdrus , he is identifiable as Apollo Helios by his effulgent halo , though now even a god's divine nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions of modesty in the later Empire.

Another haloed Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum , is in the museum at Sousse. Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature. In , the Canadian band Rush released an album with songs "Apollo: In discussion of the arts, a distinction is sometimes made between the Apollonian and Dionysian impulses where the former is concerned with imposing intellectual order and the latter with chaotic creativity.

Friedrich Nietzsche argued that a fusion of the two was most desirable. Carl Jung 's Apollo archetype represents what he saw as the disposition in people to over-intellectualise and maintain emotional distance.

Charles Handy , in Gods of Management uses Greek gods as a metaphor to portray various types of organisational culture. Apollo represents a 'role' culture where order, reason, and bureaucracy prevail.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Greek and Roman god. For the spaceflight program, see Apollo program. For other uses, see Apollo disambiguation.

For other uses, see Phoebus disambiguation. God in Greek mythology. Apollo Belvedere , c. Mycenaean gods Decline of Hellenistic polytheism Julian restoration.

Ancient Greek temple and Roman temple. Greek mythology portal Hellenismos portal. University of Texas Press.

Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p. Internationale Archäologie in German. Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Symposium, Tagung, Kongress.

Akten des Table Ronde in Mainz vom Database of Mycenaean at Oslo , University of Oslo. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible.

Jane Ellen Harrison Nilsson, Vol I, p. Retrieved 30 July Martin Nilsson , Vol I, p. Troy and the Trojan War: Essays in Honor of Sara A. Amer School of Classical.

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. At the Perseus Project. Ross, Pagan Celtic Britain , ; M. Thevonot, "Le cheval sacre dans la Gaule de l'Est", Revue archeologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est vol 2 , ; [], "Temoignages du culte de l'Apollon gaulois dans l'Helvetie romaine" , Revue celtique vol 51 , Le Gall, Alesia, archeologie et histoire Paris Die Geschicte der Giechischen Religion.

Greek Religion ,

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